Location: Cape Verde     Date: Aug 2015     Flying Hours: Met Office 90 + EUFAR 10     Sondes: 48

ICE-D:  Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust

Scientific Objectives:
The role of mineral dust as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), ice nuclei (IN) and the effect of aerosol interactions with cloud evolution remains uncertain. These aerosol-cloud interactions affect the radiative properties of clouds and are a large contribution to the uncertainty in climate change. Hence, measurements of cloud-forming particles (CCN and IN) are fundamental. The Sahara is a primary source of mineral dust particles, transported in the atmosphere westwards across the Atlantic. Mineral dust with sources from the Saharan region have been identified as efficient ice nuclei in laboratory and field studies, but the effect on cloud evolution has not been measured. The Cape Verde area is near the source region where dust concentrations are large, and both dust events and cumulus congestus clouds are frequently observed.  The large gradients in dust concentration enable aircraft sampling over a wide range of conditions in a single flight, there are diverse physical properties and mineralogical composition, and ageing by surface chemical effects over the ocean are large.



The Ice in Clouds Experiment-Dust (Ice-D) is an aircraft field campaign, conducted in concert with modelling and laboratory experiments, to improve the understanding and representation in models of dust-produced IN and CCN. The measurements will focus on both the in-situ aerosol properties of the dust lifted off the Sahara, and on the aerosol-cloud interactions and subsequent evolution of towering cumulus clouds which are dynamically, relatively simple to model. During the summer of 2015 the UK FAAM BAe-146 will deploy to Cape Verde to carry out in-situ measurements of the dust aerosol and cloud properties. The focus will be on the role of mineral dust as primary heterogeneous ice nuclei and secondary ice processes during the cloud evolution. During the deployment ground-based observations including aerosol monitoring, lidar and radar will be carried out. Additionally, with identification of the major source region of the dust encountered during selected Ice-D flights, surface samples from these regions will be used in AIDA experiments (possibly in conjunction with the 2015 International Ice Nucleation Workshop) to determine the detailed behaviour as IN and CCN.


For the UK Met Office perspective, there is a requirement to investigate whether incorporating aerosol-cloud interactions improves NWP. The MetUM optionally has new microphysics with aerosol interactions, eg. based on UKCA-mode (UK chemistry and aerosol) with aerosols represented by mass and number prognostic variables. Extensive and well-constrained case studies are required to answer the question 'is the prognostic dust  aerosol realistic and does it make a difference to cloud evolution in a well-constrained, relatively simple aerosol-cloud interaction system? ' The development of new ice nucleation instruments and improved aerosol and cloud probes means that for the first time, there will be reliable comparisons between IN measurements and ice particles observed early in the development of the ice phase. The primary objective of the Ice-D experiment is to show that direct ice nucleation measurements can be used to predict the number of ice particles formed by primary nucleation mechanisms in dynamically simple clouds.

Additionally to the primary science relating to IN, there will be significant aerosol-radiation science objectives (referred to as AERO-D or ICE-D:AEROSOL). This will focus on the prediction and data assimilation of dust in the Unified Model, on the representation of aerosol and cloud fields in the CALIPSO satellite products, and the validation of ground-based remote sensing techniques.


  • Detachment Manager - Doug Anderson, FAAM
  • Logistics - Duncan MacLeod, FAAM
  • Project Pilot - TBC, Project Ops - Peter Chappell, DFL
  • PI - Richard Cotton, Met Office; Professor Alan Blyth, University of Leeds; Prof Tom Choularton, University of Manchester


ICE-D Pre-detachment Briefing


A page of of useful links to ICE-D related forcasts, documents and templates from Franco.


ICE-D Transits

Single day with double flight crew (now three pilots).



Anticipated ICE-D Flight Plans

16 Flights (10 cloud flights, 4 dust flights, 2 EUFAR flights)


ICE-D Health & Safety

Risk Assessments

pdf ICE D 2015 General Risk Assessment v1 0 (267 KB)


Cape Verde (ICE-D Campaign base)

pdf Control Risks Cape Verde Country Report 16 Jul 2015 (226 KB)

pdf MASTA Travel Health Brief Cape Verde 20 Jul 2015 to 31 Aug 2015 (issued 16 Jul 2015) (181 KB)

pdf FCO Cape Verde travel advice (17 jul 2015) (21 KB)


Canary Islands (refuel stop, possible overnight)

pdf MASTA Travel Health Brief Canary Islands (6 27 Aug 2015) (issued 16 Jul 2015) (86 KB)


Senegal (refuel stop, unlikley overnight)

pdf Control Risks Senegal Country Report 16 Jul 2015 (520 KB)

pdf MASTA Travel Health Brief - Senegal (16 Jul - 31 Aug 2015) (issued 16 Jul 2015) (271 KB)

  pdf FCO Senegal travel advice (17 jul 2015) (23 KB)  


No longer options for landing:

pdf Control Risks Mali Country Report 20 Apr 2015 (633 KB)

pdf MASTA Travel Health Brief Mali 20 Jul 2015 to 31 Aug 2015 (issued 20 Apr 2015) (194 KB)

pdf Control Risks Mauritania Country Report 20 Apr 2015 (534 KB)

pdf MASTA Travel Health Brief Mauritania 20 Jul 2015 to 31 Aug 2015 (issued 20 Apr 2015) (190 KB)


ICE-D Visas

These are the details of the Consul in London who will issue multi entry visa for Cape Verde. You will have to fill in an online form and print it off to either take with you or send to.

Cape Verdean Consulate in London, The United Kingdom
7A The Grove
London N6 6JU
United Kingdom

TELEPHONE (+44) 7876 232305 FAX  
EMAIL  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Visa Application Form: pdf Cape Verde Visa Enquiry (268 KB)



More general Cape Verde Information






ICE-D Configuration Information

Contact Steve Devereau for further information

  • Aircraft Configuration

image MCCM Config ICE D Diagram 1 of 2 (663 KB)

image MCCM Config ICE D Diagram 2 of 2 (796 KB)

Provides an overview of the instrument configuration and aircraft mass.



  • Aircraft Configuration Drawings and Instrument Configuration  Listing

The drawings show the proposed aircraft configuration for ICE-D. The Configuration Information gives more details of the instruments fitted.


Note, the information noted below is now updated for the confirmed ICE-D instrument fit.

Updated 2 Jun 2015 by Doug Anderson




(FAAM unless otherwise stated)



Basic Aircraft, Meteorological Instruments and General Equipment
(always fitted unless otherwise stated)
Temperature: non-deiced/deiced, Heimann IR   y  
Water: General Eastern, Buck CR2 Cryogenic Hygrometer, TWC Lyman-Alpha Hygrometer, Johnson Williams Liquid Water, Nevzorov Total/Liquid Water   y  
Broad-Band Radiometers: Clear and Red   y  
Position/Dynamics: GPS, GIN, Radar altimeter   y  
video: Forward, Rearward, Upward, Downward   y  
Communications: SATCOM-C, SATCOM-Swift 64   y  
Weather radar   y  
Turbulence probe   y  
SAW Cambridge n  
WVSS-II Met Office y  
AVAPS/Aerosol LIDAR Rack      
AVAPS Dropsondes   y up to 4 / flight (16 flights) (64 max)
LIDAR Met Office y  
Photometers: JNO2, JO'D Leicester n  
ARIES Met Office y  
DEIMOS Met Office n  
MARSS Met Office n  
IIR Met Office n  
SWS Met Office y  
SHIM Met Office y  
ISMAR Met Office n  
TAFTS Imperial College n  
Core Chemistry/Nitrate Racks
Ozone   y  
FGGA   n  
CO   y  
Fast NOx   n  
PAN Leeds n  
Core Chemistry Rack, Civil Contingency      
2B Ozone
SO2   n  
BBCEAS Cambridge n  
FAGE Leeds n  
VACC Leeds n  
Peroxide/Formaldehyde UEA n  
CIMS Manchester n  
QC-LAS Manchester n  
LIF L'Aquila n  
LTI/Grimm OPC FAAM/Leeds y  
TDLAS Cambridge n  
York GCMS York n  
Cloud Physics and Aerosol      
Cloud Physics Rack      
HALOHolo   y  
PCASP   y  
CDP/BCP   y  
CIP100   y  
Hertfordshire y  
SID3 Hertfordshire n  
Fast FSSP Met Office n  
FSSP/SPP-100 Manchester n  
AIMMS-20   y  
Manchester Cloud/Aerosol Rack      
CAPS Manchester y  
2DS Manchester y  
SPEC-CPI Manchester n  
SPEC-3V-CPI Manchester y  
SP2 Manchester y  
UHSAS Manchester y  
FWVS Met Office n  
Nephelometer/PSAP/Filters Rack      
Wet Nephelometer Met Office n  
Nephelometer, PSAP, Filters   y, y, y  
IAGOS-BCP Manchester y  
INC Met Office n  
CVI Met Office n  
TOF-AMS Manchester y  
ALABAMA Max Plank Institute n